By Niccolo Machiavelli Introduction by Anthony Grafton Translated by George Bull Notes by George Bull

By Niccolo Machiavelli Introduction by Anthony Grafton Translated by George Bull Notes by George Bull


“[Machiavelli] can still engage our attention with remarkable immediacy, and this cannot be explained solely by the appeal of his ironic observations on human behaviour. Perhaps the most important thing is the way he can compel us puro reflect on our own priorities and the reasoning behind them; it is this intrusion into our own defenses that makes reading him an intriguing experience. As verso scientific exponent of the political art Machiavelli may have had few followers; it is as verso provocative rhetorician that he has had his real impact on history.” –from the Introduction by Dominic Baker-Smith

Table Of Contents

ChronologyMapIntroductionTranslator’s NoteSelected BooksMachiavelli’s Principal WorksLetter puro the Magnificent Lorenzo de Medici1IHow many kinds of principality there are and the ways mediante which they are acquired5IIHereditary principalities5IIIComposite principalities6IVWhy the kingdom of Darius conquered by Alexander did not rebel against his successors after his death13VHow cities or principalities which lived under their own laws should be administered after being conquered16VINew principalities acquired by one’s own arms and prowess17VIINew principalities acquired with the help of fortune and foreign arms20VIIIThose who che razza di to power by crime27IXThe constitutional principality31XHow the strength of every principality should be measured34XIEcclesiastical principalities36XIIMilitary organization and mercenary troops39XIIIAuxiliary, composite, and native troops43XIVHow per prince should organize his militia47XVThe things for which men, and especially princes, are praised or blamed49XVIGenerosity and parsimony51XVIICruelty and compassion; and whether it is better onesto be loved than feared, or the reverse53XVIIIHow princes should honour their word56XIXThe need onesto avoid contempt and hatred58XXWhether fortresses and many of the other present-day expedients puro which princes have recourse are useful or not67XXIHow per prince must act esatto win honour71XXIIA prince’s personal staff75XXIIIHow flatterers must be shunned76XXIVWhy the Italian princes have lost their states78XXVHow far human affairs are governed by fortune, and how fortune can be opposed79XXVIExhortation to liberate Italy from the barbarians82Glossary of Proper Names86Notes99

New monarchies, however, present many problems. Some are “mixed” monarchies, mediante which verso prince adds new territory esatto the principality he already governs. Sometimes this new territory is won through invasion or battle, but on other occasions, the people sopra the new territory may have rejected their former prince. Per prince who has recently annexed per territory must remember that the people who recently welcomed him may soon try sicuro overthrow him if he offends them. If the new territory has the same religion, language and customs as the prince, it is less difficult sicuro control than one per which these institutions are different. If the prince is certain that the old ruling family is extinct, and if he is careful not onesto make many changes durante laws and taxes, people will not rebel against him.

The prince must also make sure that the people will always need him. If they people feel that they need the prince for their protection and well-being, they will remain loyal onesto him. This is particularly true if the people have previously governed themselves and find their new government changing into one of absolute rule. People who used puro govern themselves are less likely preciso rebel if they feel that the prince is the only one who can protect them. Durante any event, a prince must have verso strong army and not be hated in order onesto govern successfully.

If per prince annexes a territory, he must disarm his new subjects and place military control durante the hands of the soldiers from his old state. The wise prince also learns esatto make friends of those who were once his enemies, since the love and friendship of his people will be more useful esatto him than fortresses con defending the state. It is essential that the prince surround himself with courtaud advisers. He must avoid flatterers and rely on a few men with good judgment who speak freely esatto him. Durante order onesto avoid flatterers, the prince should accept advice only when he solicits it. Unasked for advice should never be welcomed. Per wise prince should bring only intelligent men into his council and give them and only them “Free license preciso speak the truth”. The prince can – and should ask questions, seek out opinions and hear the viewpoints of others.

Machiavelli died at the age of 58 con 1527. He was buried per Florence at the Church of Santa Afflizione. His books and name live on today. His satire, “The Prince” is still so commonly read and acknowledged that the term “Machiavellian” has come puro mean the art of using deception and duplicity preciso gain control mediante per business or political setting.

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